A new emerging field bioinformatics
My Times Today.Bioinformatics is the branch of science which uses the applications of information technology and computer science into the field of molecular biology. It was Paulien Hogeweg who invented the term Bioinformatics in 1979 to study the processes of information technology into biological systems. The science of bioinformatics actually develops algorithms and biological software of computer to analyze and record the data related to biology for example the data of genes, proteins, drug ingredients and metabolic pathways. As biological data is always in raw form and there is a need of certain storage house in which the data can be stored, organized and manipulated. Biological software and databases provide the scientists this opportunity so that the data can be extracted from these database easily and can be used by the scientists.
The application of sequence analysis determines those genes which encode regulatory sequences or peptides by using the information of sequencing. For sequence analysis, there are many powerful tools and computers which perform the duty of analyzing the genome of various organisms. These computers and tools also see the DNA mutations in an organism and also detect and identify those sequences which are related. Shotgun sequence techniques are also used for sequence analysis of numerous fragments of DNA. Special software is used to see the overlapping of fragments and their assembly.
Prediction of Protein Structure:-
It is easy to determine the primary structure of proteins in the form of amino acids which are present on the DNA molecule but it is difficult to determine the secondary, tertiary or quaternary structures of proteins.
In genome annotation, genomes are marked to know the regulatory sequences and protein coding. It is a very important part of the human genome project as it determines the regulatory sequences.
Comparative genomics is the branch of bioinformatics which determines the genomic structure and function relation between different biological species.
Health and Drug discovery:-
The tools of bioinformatics are also helpful in drug discovery, diagnosis and disease management. Complete sequencing of human genes has enabled the scientists to make medicines and drugs which can target more than 500 genes.